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Insane Bulgarian Communist Monuments – Size Really Did Matter

bulgaria communist monument shumen


Tripping through the Bulgarian countryside in search of communist-era monuments is perhaps the most Western experience I have ever had. The thing is, most people who live in nations that were once under the Soviet sphere of influence, would like to forget that whole communism thing. It’s the original c-word. These days, many locals seem hell-bent on absorbing and aping as much American influenced popular culture as possible. Young Bulgarians dream of taking selfies with Tiffany and Billy-Ray, punishing Jetski’s, shot-gunning beers, and taking spring-break vacation down in Florida. Ironically, they don’t realise what lays right in their own back-yard. For what could be more “Western” than three people who haven’t worked a real job in years, cruising the back roads of a former-communist nation in search of Instagram’s and Facebook posts? There’s only one thing could be more first-world than that – blogging about it.

And so, here we are.

Nobody did communist monuments bigger than Bulgaria. Nobody. Sure – Ukraine, Georgia, and a few other ex-Soviet puppet nations built a giant lady-statue or two. But in communist Bulgaria, money was spent on concrete and bricks like a forced-labour-camp buying cold gruel. The Bulgarian propaganda machine skillfully combined architecture and design with enormous wads of cash to produce a collection of enormous “Pametnik” that are about as subtle as a Cadillac in North Korea.


buzludzha communist monument bulgaria

Luckiest kid on earth. Buzludzha Communist Party Headquarters, Bulgaria.

Communist headquarters/monument in Bulgaria - Buzludzha

Seeing glimpses of the stunning Bulgarian countryside through the decaying concrete of Buzludzha was a site I won’t soon forget.


For the full story of Buzludzha (scaling to the top of the tower), check out the full report here.

communist monument buzludzha

Rapidly becoming the most photographed hammer and sickle in Bulgaria. Main dome of Buzludzha abandoned memorial/lazer tag arena.

, the UFO shaped former Communist Party Headquarters, meeting hall, and laser-tag arena, is becoming more well known, and currently grabs much of the attention. Infiltrating the iconic concrete UFO perched atop a remote Bulgarian mountain has reached the status amongst urban explorers normally reserved for a tour of Detroit ruin-porn. And, deservedly so. But, Bulgarian communist monuments don’t stop at Buzludzha. Oh no.

Home to the cubist-styled memorial, the “Monument to 1300 Years of Bulgaria”, the city of Shumen was my first insight into just how determined the communist Bulgarian government was on demonstrating their concrete expertise. The monument at Shumen was built in 1981, designed by Bulgarian sculptors Krum Damyanov and Ivan Slavov, and I really had no idea of the colossal size of this structure. Driving about twenty kilometers out of Shumen, I looked in my rear-vision mirror, and noticed my friend Darmon had that contented grin only a British-born bohemian-freelance-urban-explorer-writer-musician-dark-tourism-expert living in Bulgaria is capable of. “So, Nate, I should tell you, that Transformer’s-esque horse monument you want to see, it’s over there.” I could see it, jutting out above Shumen, from twenty kilometres away. Up close, the Shumen monument is a collection of somewhat menacing cubist concrete statues, housed in a modernist geometric building, positioned atop a hill overlooking the city.


Shumen Monument communism bulgaria

Monument to 1300 Years of Bulgaria, in the city of Shumen. Visible from 30 km’s away, it sits at a height of 450 metres.

communist bulgaria monument

Officially the heaviest communist monument on Earth. I recommend visiting Monument to 1300 Years of Bulgaria, Shumen, during a heavy thunder and lightning storm.

communism monument bulgaria

Phillipa, beginning to be a little concerned at the drastic change in weather. Shumen, Bulgaria.

communism monument bulgaria

I’ve highlighted Phillipa to show the scale of the Shumen monument. The ceiling is probably twice as high as this photo shows. It was pouring with rain, and we were stuck on opposite sides of the memorial, surrounded by menacing cubist communist overlords.


Unlike many Bulgarian communist-era monuments, the Shumen memorial has been well maintained. On the day I visited, apart from being trapped due to a fittingly grim storm (I will never, ever, forget the look on the staunch faces of the statues I sheltered beneath being lit-up by lightning), a wedding party was utilising the memorial for a photo shoot. Not all of Bulgaria’s monuments receive this kind of love and attention. Particularly the more “Russian” of the bunch. Over on the Bulgarian coast in the Black Sea town of Varna, the “Monument of the Bulgarian-Soviet Friendship”, is now 10,000 tonnes of vandalised concrete and iron being left to decay. Perhaps it has something to do with the message of the monument, often interpreted as “dear strong, brave, and fearless Russian soldiers, please accept these gifts of bread, flowers, and salt from our finest Bulgarian women, seriously, thanks so much, we couldn’t have looked after our poor country without your help, you’re the best”. To top it off, the memorial at Varna was built in a position that faces towards Moscow. Subtle.

Beneath the Varna monument, a long, deep, concrete staircase descends into a dark and long abandoned nuclear bunker, with symbols painted on the wall that appear to be letters. However, it’s not from any alphabet on this planet. I’m not saying Aliens had something to do with this memorial, but I’m sure the History Channel would agree that the evidence of Aliens working with the Russian and Bulgarian Politburo’s is basically irrefutable and conclusive. In the upper section of the Varna monument are various rooms, once used for official communist business, but today used as shelter for the homeless.


varna bulgaria communist monument

Monument of the Bulgarian-Soviet Friendship, Varna, Bulgaria.

varna monument communism bulgaria

Beneath the man-made hill is the nuclear bunker. Adorned with alien-like codes on the walls, what we found inside the Varna monument was truly shocking. It will remain a secret, until such time that I am contacted by the History Channel.

communist monument varna bulgaria

Russian soldiers facing Moscow. Varna, Bulgaria.


Plovidiv, one of Europe’s oldest cities, went the truly abstract route – with the amazingly named “Knoll of Fraternity Memorial Complex”. Slabs of concrete create a symphony of 1974 geometry, layered atop one another to symbolize a Thracian hillock. The Thracians were one of many peoples that have inhabited the ancient city of Plovdiv throughout it’s seven thousand year history. Yes, thousand. The concrete knoll was constructed at one end of a grand soviet-styled boulevard – designed to run through the city as a place to celebrate communist-era “festive activities”. As with the mythical “Memorial to Great Farmers of Potatoes”, the plans for Plovdiv’s spacious boulevard were never fully realised. Today, much like The Bangles, even the “eternal flame” in the middle of the Plovdiv monument has long been extinguished and forgotten about.


plovdiv communist monument

Plovdiv Hillock of Fraternity. Perhaps the coolest name of any communist monument.

communist monument plovdiv bulgaria

Geometric concrete was a Bulgarian specialty.

plovidv bulgaria monument

In a bizarre twist of fate, the “eternal flame” of the Plovdiv communist memorial went out on February 17th, 1989. Exactly the same day that American pop-group The Bangles released their number one hit “Eternal Flame”. OMG, I know, it’s crazy.

zimnitsa bulgaria memorial

World, I present to you the monument at Zimnitsa (population 878), Bulgaria. Entry statements like these appear outside of towns all over Bulgaria.


It’s true, these monuments remind the locals that Bulgaria did indeed live through a sinister, murderous, brutal, communist regime, hell bent on the spread of propaganda and oppression. But in the 21st century, perhaps the Bulgarian people can get a bit of their own back, using these symbolic reminders to capitalise on the growing number of international tourists with a strange nostalgia for a time and place that existed in the “West” only though our own government propaganda, which was being distributed at a rate that would make the Bulgarians blush.

In any case, I have visited Bulgaria multiple times over the last year (most recently, just a few weeks ago), and can’t wait to return.

When in Plovdiv, the cast and crew of Yomadic stay at the only Hostel on the entire planet that I can recommend whole-heartedly and without reservation – The Crib


PS, did you hear I’m running an un-tour this year? Ten nights through the Balkans, from Belgrade Serbia to Kotor Montenegro and then back to Belgrade riding on the worlds best train journey. If you would like to join Phillipa, myself, and Larissa AKA The Blonde Gypsy on a trip you won’t forget, use the contact form here to ask me for details. Our first trip (taking place in May) sold out in a matter of hours, and there are just a few places left on the June YoGypsy trip. Get in touch, we would love to have you join us and our small group as we trip though the best of the Balkans!


YoGypsy Trips - June 2014

Contact me on the email in this flyer… I would love to have you join myself, Phillipa, and Larissa on a journey you will never forget.


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36 Responses to Insane Bulgarian Communist Monuments – Size Really Did Matter

  1. Darmon Richter Jan 21, 2014 at 11:55 am #

    Allow me to be the first to congratulate you on a superlative bit of writing, sir. Your photos from Shumen really came out a treat, didn’t they?

    • Nate Robert Jan 21, 2014 at 12:05 pm #

      Dude, you should have seen the paragraph I edited out, which basically made it sound like a heavy bro-mance was happening. “Darmon is this amazing guy etc etc”. But I’m not that sort of guy. And then, there’s the whole Phillipa thing. In any case, this was the first of our journeys, the one that started it all, and I look forward to the next. re: the photos, yes, that storm in Shumen really helped things!

  2. Megan Jan 21, 2014 at 12:09 pm #

    excuse my language but seriously fucking sick photography, nate. i have no other words.

    kidding i do.

    i love the part where you said that the people there have no idea what is in their own backyard. i agree with that statement 100%. i salivate over some of the architecture i see when traveling and the people around me scoff at it.

    on a side note, it must really pain you to see how horrible my ‘shot on auto’ photos are on my blog. need to ship you and phillipa up to oslo to give me some major lessons.

    • Nate Robert Jan 21, 2014 at 12:24 pm #

      Language is not a problem, I’m Australian ;) As for your lessons, no, you will need to come to Belgrade and get some lessons here!

      And yes, I find the same thing everywhere – when I posted an article about Novi Beograd, people here told me they never considered it “article-worthy” until a foreigner came to town and pointed it out. Similar reaction in Skopje. It just goes to show how us humans can miss what’s right in front of us, and familiar.

      So, yeah, get that Belgrade ticket happening. Early June is almost a 100% certainty that Phillipa, Larissa, and myself will all be here!

      • Megan Jan 21, 2014 at 2:36 pm #

        definitely will try to get down that way. i can probably work remotely and take a LONG weekend down that way in june. still sad i cant go on a yogypsy trip……this time. :)

        • Nate Robert Jan 22, 2014 at 6:01 am #

          There’s always a next time…. or is there? ;)

  3. peter nadort Jan 21, 2014 at 4:10 pm #

    Hello Nate,

    Again really wonderful pictures, but at the same time insanity. Still asking, ho was this possible. Thanks for this.

    regards, peter

    • Nate Robert Jan 22, 2014 at 6:04 am #

      Cheers Peter, thanks for stopping by again. Yes, it’s just a bit insane… and hard to fathom the scale of these Bulgarian monuments. They do make for fantastic tourist opportunities though!

  4. TravelBloggerBuzz Jan 21, 2014 at 9:53 pm #

    I am so embarrassed I was in Bulgaria about three years ago and missed every single one of these buildings. I just need to go back to redeem myself!

    • Nate Robert Jan 22, 2014 at 5:52 am #

      Let’s do a road trip, G!

      The monument are all fairly “remote” – as in, they’re in cities and towns, but you need to travel a bit from Sofia to get to them. Bulgaria has so much to offer, it really put’s a smile on my face whenever I think of my time in that country. And I know there’s so much that I’m yet to see…

  5. joelz santana Jan 22, 2014 at 2:33 am #

    I always did sense an anti-communist undercurrent when listening to the Bangles, but had no idea they were so politically active!
    although, after listening to the b side for eternal flame (‘death to Zhivkov’) hindsight is 20-20!

    • Nate Robert Jan 22, 2014 at 5:43 am #

      You’re a wise man, Mr Santana. I suggest you play the vinyl single of “Death to Zhivkov” backwards, listen to the chorus and you will hear (in Bulgarian) “gruel is good, eat more gruel” repeated over and over. It’s all so clear now!

  6. Paul Jan 22, 2014 at 7:37 am #

    Awesome in the literal sense of the word. Why more people don’t appreciate this stuff I’ll never understand.

    • Nate Robert Jan 22, 2014 at 7:59 am #

      Hey Paul – there are far more fans of this sort of thing that you would believe… lot’s of people with good taste out there ;)

  7. Steph (@ 20 Years Hence) Jan 22, 2014 at 9:04 am #

    Totally gobsmacked by these photos, Nate. I’ve seen some pretty dreary Communist architecture, and quite honestly, didn’t really think there was any other kind! The shots you got in Shumen look like they could be straight out of a Tolkien novel… very, very cool!

    • Nate Robert Jan 22, 2014 at 10:36 am #

      Thanks Steph! I love it when it’s raining and stormy, much like sunrise/sunset it just adds a totally interesting dimension to photos. In Shumen, I couldn’t have had more perfect conditions for photographing this amazing monument.

  8. Amber Jan 25, 2014 at 6:35 am #

    Crazy! I’ve been to the statue park outside of Budapest, which was cool, but this place takes the cake. So amazing.

    • Nate Robert Jan 27, 2014 at 3:36 pm #

      It’s pretty wild, Amber. I’ve been to Budapest a few times, and I’m yet to make it to the statue park! Next time for sure…although, I did say that last time ;)

  9. Banker in the Sun Jan 26, 2014 at 8:01 am #

    The Balkans train journey sounds amazing, just met a girl who is cycling through the Balkans this summer – I had no idea how incredible the scenery is there, I’m sure it’s just as good if not better by train!

    • Nate Robert Jan 27, 2014 at 3:31 pm #

      The scenery really is spectacular… not since being in New Zealand have I seen scenery this good. Cycling or train are probably the two best ways to travel though the Balkans.

  10. Hal Jan 28, 2014 at 8:44 pm #

    it has been too long since i checked your site…i am a sucky friend. that shit is awesome….you keep showing me the world old man. its good out there….
    Hi Phil..xo

    • Nate Robert Jan 29, 2014 at 5:04 am #

      You’re one of my best friends, Hal! …and all of my good female friends seem to call me “old man” these days ;) We’ll catch each other in real life sooner or later for sure, somewhere in this big old world… Please say hi to Lil L, I miss my youngest buddy!

  11. Laurence Zankowski Feb 2, 2014 at 1:50 pm #


    You already know how I feel about your skill set when it comes to photography. You paid attention to the masters.

    Could you or can you imagine the workers building these? Then back to the architects who drew up the plans, and back to the artists who conceived these? It reminds me of Josef Von Sternberg’s work in the film ” The Scarlet Empress “. The massive scale, the austere beauty. Truly inspiring work. They need to be saved. Should start the YOMADIC GYPSY ART RESCUE LEAGUE .

    Be well,


    • Nate Robert Feb 17, 2014 at 7:39 am #

      Hey Laurence, I love how I always learn something new when I read your comments. I’m going to have to check out Josef Von Sternberg’s work. And, yes, we should create some sort of “art rescue league” – especially in the Balkans, they need a lot of help to preserve these beautiful structures.

      Take care,

  12. Bama Feb 10, 2014 at 5:36 am #

    Generally I’m not a big fan of Communist architecture for its ‘coldness’ and lack of embellishments. However Bulgaria has some very interesting Communist monuments. I find them very grand, eerie and mysterious at the same time! Nate, you really know how to ‘play’ with light and shadow. Great photos!

    • Nate Robert Feb 17, 2014 at 7:29 am #

      Hey Bama, always nice to hear from you.

      Yes, not everyone is a fan of Communist Architecture, but the Bulgarians certainly had their own unique spin on things. And thanks for the photography compliments – somebody once said “the worse the weather, the better the photos”, or something like that!

  13. Adam Feb 10, 2014 at 6:47 pm #

    Hi Nate, amazing pictures.
    I am also a big fan of communist era architecture. Myself, being Polish, brought up in Yugoslavia, I was always fascinated with their architecture. There is some good communist style architecture in Czech and Slovak Republic, as in Poland as well… Ukraine would make your jaw drop off as well.
    BTW – if you plan a trip the Balkans again, I was always considering a trip on the trail of SPOMENIKI – monuments dedicated to to Yugoslav partisans from WW2 times. Have a look here for some inspiration:

    Fingers crossed for further great pictures and trips around the Balkans



    • Nate Robert Feb 17, 2014 at 7:28 am #

      Cheers Adam.

      In particular I love the architecture in Bratislava, Slovakia – amazing stuff. I wrote about it here: http://www.yomadic.com/soviet-architecture-hotel-kyjev-bratislava/

      One of these days I’m going to get to Ukraine, actually, it’s right near the top of my list. And as for the Spomenik in the Balkans, I’ve already visited a few, and slowly but surely will get to all of them (I hope!)

      Take care,

  14. Yavor Feb 24, 2014 at 3:45 am #

    Hey man,

    Really nice that you feel good in my country! There are so many things to see here…really many many things. If you are coming again around write me a mail I would definitely recommend you some stuff and try to find you places to stay if you need.



  15. Aaron Mar 6, 2014 at 3:05 am #

    Great article and amazing pics as always. After reading your article on Buzludzha, I decided to head there and of course was not disappointed. I think we share the same love of communist architecture and Bulgaria is full of it.

    You should definitely head to Ukraine, maybe when things have settled down, but the Soviet statues in Kyiv are next level impressive.

    Just wondering about your photos here, are you using a lens filter to achieve that faded/rustic look? It makes the monuments look that much more communist.

    Would love to know to add that extra layer to my photos while I’m living in Albania.

    Hope your enjoying your time in Perth.

    • Nate Robert Mar 6, 2014 at 6:46 am #

      Hey Aaron.. now, which Aaron is this?

      Would love to reach Ukraine, but yes, perhaps right now is not ideal…or maybe it is ;)

      I don’t really use “filters” as such – just tweaking with contrast/white balance/the usual. You can get a “faded” look just by adjusting whites/blacks/contrasts/etc. I use Lightroom to do all of this…

      Any questions, fire away!


  16. George Vichev Mar 27, 2014 at 4:13 am #

    Nice article mate! You should have come to Stara Zagora to see the Samara Flag momument:


    I have never seen the Varna memorial, but I will visit it! And I hated the ugly Plovdiv one, but the ‘flying sauser’ as we call the Buzludzha monument is truly a magnificent sight, can be seen from many, many miles away… Thanks ;)

  17. nevermind Mar 27, 2014 at 6:21 am #

    All this / http://cdn.yomadic.com/wp-content/uploads/shumen-monument-communism-bulgaria.jpg / is a proof that Transformers do exist.

  18. Misha Mar 27, 2014 at 12:08 pm #

    These menacing cubist concrete statues are NOT “communist overlords”. The place is also known as the Founders of the Bulgarian State Monument. The statue with the sword is the statue of the ruler of the Bulgar orda in the second half of the 7th century and is credited with the establishment of the First Bulgarian Empire in 680/681. So … not “communist overlords” they are Bulgarian khans and tsars

  19. YoGI Mar 27, 2014 at 12:21 pm #

    I am from Shumen and the only communist thing about “Monument to 1300 Years of Bulgaria” are the years it has been built. This monument represents the establishment of Bulgaria and we bulgarians are very proud of our history. Nevertheless we have abandoned a lot of monuments and memorials only becuse they represent antiquated conseptions. I like these pictures, I love the dramatic feeling they give me.

  20. Lidiya Mar 28, 2014 at 2:59 am #

    Shumen, Bulgaria – my town. The memory is made by the people of the region for themselves to celebrate their stay at this place, at this region where the first two capitals of Bulgaria are. It is defenitely an art, it is made in 1981 and it is full of symbols. If you know where to look at you will see a cross of lights, the mosaic shows the creators of our alphabet, and the man with the sword is Khan Asparuh – the man who came at the same place in 680-681. There is absolutely nothing communist in it, on the contrary it shows strenght and steadynes, and pride!